Negative and Positive Ions
In the middle of an atom is the nucleus. The nucleus contains protons (+) and neutrons． The nucleus is surrounded by electrons (-)． Atoms usually have the same number of electrons as protons． These electrons are, however, constantly spinning around the atom and swapping places with the electrons of surrounding atoms.
Atoms that have gained electrons from other atoms (negatively charged) form Negative ions and those that have lost electrons form Positive ions
★ Do negative ions existe naturally on the earth？
Yes． All substances are made of ions． There are more negative ions in nature than positive ions at a ratio of 2:1． This ratio has been disturbed in recent years due to frequent use of electronic equipment and contaminated air． Especially in urban areas, the ratio has been reversed with more positive ions in the air.
★ Are there any places with plenty of negative ions？
Near waterfalls, in forests, at open-air hot-spring baths and generally at places where you feel refreshed and rested.
★ Were are plenty of positive ions？
At busy intersections, in buildings where many electrical appliances are used and generally in places with stagnant air.
★ What is the relationship between positive and negative ions？
Please see the following figures：
● NEGATIVE IONS：
Gain of electrons / reduction / near waterfalls / forest bathing / well-ventilated / small cluster water / high plains / open air hotspring bath / refreshment and relaxation / cell activation / healing places and water fountains / inhibition of active oxygen generation / water striders and dragonflies / healthy / rejuventation
● POSITIVE IONS：
oxidation / highly humid places / aickness / cokroaches and mites / aging / generation of active oxygen / fluorescent leghting / electrical appliances / bethrooms with doors and windows closed / Loss of electrons / busy intersections / in office buildings and cars / wetlands / decay / ultraviolet rays
Effects of Negative Ions
★ Are negative ions for good our bode？
Maintaining a well-balanced condition of positive and negative ions is important． offices and other environment where many electrical appliances are used always lack negative ions． Those living in such environments frequently need to supplement negative ions.
★ What are effects of negative ions？
1）Maintenance of health and physiological function in good condition Relaxing effect, stress relief, autonomic nerve control, fatigue relief (neutralization of lactic acid), lowering of blood pressure, deep sleep, promotion of metabolism, blood purification, blood circulation improvement, cell activation, antioxidative activity, improvement in concentration
2）Effects associated with the environment Antistatic, antidust, antibacterial and moth-repelling effects; deodorization, neutralization of positive ions, maintenance of freshness, control of dioxin, degradation of formaldehyde.
★ Will negative ions in higer concentration show better effects？
No． Excessive negative ions will make you feel drained like after taking a long hot bath. A good balance between positive and negative ions is important． The amount of negative ions should be decided appropriately depending on where, how long and for what purposes you will use them.
★ Do negative ion ceramics have the radiation hormesis effect？
Yes． Negative ion ceramics, which emit small amounts of radiation, have the radiation hormesis effect which is observed at hot springs． This effect may activate the body, improving immunological function, inhibiting the aging process and promoting growth． A combination of negative ions and negative ion ceramics will show synergy effects.
Generation of Negative Ions
★ How are negative ions generated？
The generation of negative ions is commonly divided into the following
i．Lenard effect (shearing forces of water droplets)
Near waterfalls, water fountains, etc.
When hitting rocks, water is broken into small particles, carrying a negative charge into the atmosphere． This is why there are many negative ions near waterfalls.
ii．Electrically-generated negative ions
Lightning, corona discharge, etc.
Negative ions can also be produced electrically.
iii．Mineral ores that are abundant in thermal regions, etc.
Negative ions are generated when small amounts of radiation reacts with water particles in the atmosphere.
★ Will produced negative ions dissapear？
They will disappear by reacting with positive ions． The concentration is believed to reduce in inverse proportion to the square of distance． three types.
★ Does tourmaline/ healstone release negative ions？
Not under static condition at normal temperatures.It releases negative ions for a few seconds only when it is scrubbed or given a shock such as high heat.
★ Does charcol elease negative ions？
Not under static condition at normal temperatures but it does when it is scrubbed． Charcoal with high quality, however, has the humidifying effect, maintaining the humidity at 65%, which is a favorable condition to keep negative ions.
★ Are there any materials that generate negative ions under static condition ,at normal temperature, without adding any energy？
There are ceramics that contain small amounts of naturally occurring radioactive material.
★ Can we see negative ions being released with naked eyes？
No． We need a measuring device． With our product EB-17, negative ions released from natural ores and ceramics can be easily measured． Ions in the air can be measured by air ion counter． (Measurement of air ions is very difficult when air is flowing.)
★ Do ion generators release ozon？ Is ozone good for the health?
Conventional ion generators release a large amount of ozone, giving off ozone odor． Ion generators with the least possible release of ozone have recently been developed.Ozone is not good for the body because it promotes oxidation, which promotes aging． ceramics can be easily measured.